Optical Fiber Splitter has play an important role in passive optical networks (like EPON, GPON, BPON, FTTX, FTTH, etc.) by allowing a single PON interface to be shared among many subscribers. In simple way a splitter is a devices use to split any thing, like TV signals, water, optical signal etc depend on the application. For example to split TV signals we use splitter made for such applications, in same way there is a splitter use to split the water way.
So such a splitter use to split or distribute optical signal into two or more sub way is known as fiber optic splitter. Splitter also Add some loss into link, which is constant and because of there is a module in splitter.
Types of Spliters
We can classify the optical spliter into two ways.
- Classification of spliter with respect to Its manufacturing.
- Classification of spliter with respect of its applications.
Types of spliter with respect to Its manufacturing.
In this case we classify the spliter by manufacturing technique. We have two types of spliters, PLC and FPT Spliter.
FBT abbreviated as (fused biconical taper splitter), it is based on traditional technology which weld several fiber together. Fiber are align by heating for a specific location and length. The fuse fiber protected by glass tube, and then a stainless steel tube cover the inner glass tube and sealed by silicon. As technology continues to increase the quality of FBT also increase and it can applied in a cost effective way.
FBT spliter is made out of material which is easily available in low price, so it is cheaper.
Mostly we use 1*2 spliter made of FBT.
The maximum split ratio of FBT is upto 1*32.
PLC abbreviated as (planar lightwave circuit spliter ). It is base on planar lightwave circuit technology. It comprises three layers: a substrate, a wave guide, and a lid. The wave guide plays a key role in the splitting process which allows for passing specific percentages of light. So the signal can split equally.
It is suitable for multiple operating wave length, Good stability across all ratio and low failure rate.
It is too complicated than FBT spliter and it cost is also high from FBT.
PLC is manufacture up to 1*128 split ratio which is too much greater than FBT ratio.
Type of Splitter with respect to Application
Mostly splitter ratio starts from 1*2 and is available in 1*4, 1*8, 1*16, 1*32, 1*64, and 1*128 etc.
Losses of Fiber Optic Splitter
As we already know that splitter split down the optical link which also add lose in link depend on the ratio of splitter. Following are the losses of splitter with ratio.
- 1*2 splitter Loss = 3.5dB
- 1*4 splitter Loss = 7dB
- 1*8 splitter Loss = 10.5dB
- 1*16 splitter Loss = 14 dB
- 1*32 splitter Loss = 17.5dB
- 1*64 splitter Loss = 21dB
- 1*128 splitter Loss = 24.5dB
Applications Of Fiber Optic Splitter
There are many Applications of Optical Splitters in Fiber opitc network systems.
- It may use in DC (Distribution cabinet )
- It may be use in NAP(Network Access point).
- May use in Different joint.
- Also use in POP (point of presence) to split different PON(passive optical network) etc.