In the site selection for hydro power plant, The site selection for hydro power plant must be done after thorough investigation. The hydro power plant should be near to the dam and storage reservoir. Such a location reduces the length of the penstock and the loss of head in the penstock.
Several alternatives layouts are considered and the site is select after a thorough investigation. The essential requirements for site selection for hydro power plants are:
- Large catchment area
- High rain fall
- Favorable site for reservoir
- Solid sub soil etc.
- Water Storage: water storage is an essential part of hydro power plant. Because of wide fluctuation in stream flow, storage is required in most of the hydropower projects in the high flow periods and use it in the lean flow periods.
- Head of Water: an increase in effective head reduce the quantity of water to be store and handled by penstocks, screens and turbines.
Therefore, the capital cost of the power plant is reduce. Details study is required for the effective and economic head selection.
- Water Pollution: Polluted water may cause excessive corrosion and damage to metallic structures.
Therefore, This may render the operation of the plant unreliable and uneconomic. As such, it is necessary to see that the water is of good quality and will not cause any trouble.
- Environmental Effects: Hydro power plants projects submerge huge areas and many villages. As such, the environmental effects are also important.
The site should ensure safe and pleasing surroundings, avoid health hazards and preserve important cultural and historic aspects of the area.
- Availability of Water: The first and the most part of the power plant is that is to make sure the water is available for the production of electricity.
The data should include the average flow, minimum and maximum flows and there periods. The estimate of water availability should also take into account the evaporation loss and seepage loss.
- Geological investigation: Geological investigations are require to see that foundation rock for the dam and other structures is firm, stable, impervious and strong enough to water trust and other stresses. The area should also be free from earthquakes.
- Sedimentation: The capacity of storage reservoir is reduce due to the gradual deposition of silt. Slit may also cause to damage the turbine blades.