A system is a components or a group of components connect in a sequence to perform a specific task. Therefore, in a power system the electrical power is generate, transmit and distributed.
It is not available in the natural form. Coal, Hydro and Nuclear that are primary energy resources, which used for induction of electricity.
Now natural gas has also entered the power generation. Electricity generation from diesel is restricted as captive power generation for during power cut period or in hilly and other areas where conventional generation has not been possible.
Large quantity of electric power is generate at places where coal is available i.e. Coal mines or where water potential can be hardness i.e. in river basins mostly situate in hilly areas. Such places of generation are power stations.
Small power system (where small of amount of energy is produce) examples are industries , hospitals , commercial buildings and homes.
Components of Power System
There are few component of power system which are below.
- Supply: Supplies consists of batteries, fuel cells,photovoltaic cells etc.
- Loads: All electrical appliances are the example of loads light Bulbs,Fans etc.
- Conductors: Conductors carry power from the generators to the load. Usually the example of conductors are porcelain, glass or polymer insulators.
- Power electronics: Power electronics are semiconductor based devices that are able to switch quantities of power ranging from a few hundred watts to several hundred megawatts.Example of power electronics are rectifiers etc.
- Protective devices: Power systems contain protective devices to prevent injury or damage during failures. few examples are circuit breakers,fuses etc.
- Capacitors and Reactors: The majority of the load in a typical AC power system is inductive; the current lags behind the voltage.Since the voltage and current are out-of-phase, this leads to the emergence of an “imaginary” form of power known as reactive power. Reactive power does no measurable work but is transmit back and forth between the reactive power source and load every cycle. This reactive power can be provided by the generators themselves, through the adjustment of generator excitation, but it is often cheaper to provide it through capacitors, hence capacitors are often placed near inductive loads to reduce current demand on the power system (i.e., increase the power factor).