The Site Selection for Thermal Power Plant as compared with hydroelectric power plant is more difficult as it involves numbers of factors to be consider for its economic justification.
The consideration for the Site Selection for Thermal Power Plant should be examine in details before selecting. The locating of thermal power station should made with full consideration. Not only of the trends in the development and location of demand. Also of the availability and location of the cheapest sources of the primary energy.
The Factors for the Site Selection for Thermal Power Plant are:
Load center: Thermal power plant should be as near as possible to the center of load so that transmission cost and losses are minimum.
This Factor is most important when D.C (Direct Current) supply system is adopt. However, in case of A.C (Alternating Current) supply system when transformation of energy from lower voltage to voltage is possible.
Power plant can be erect at places other than that of center of load provide other conditions favorable.
Supply of Water: large quantity of water is require in a thermal power plant. It is require to raise the steam in boiler. It is also require for cooling purposes such as in condenser. Supply of water also carrying medium such as in disposal of ash.
In steam, power plants approximately 1.26*106 k.cals of Heat per MW per Hour has to be disposed off in the condenser.
so direct calculation from the source of water 120m3 of water is require per MW per Hour.
In case of cooling towers are used about 2.4m3 of water per MW per hour will be require in addition to make up water.
With Pond cooling slightly large quantity of water is require to meet evaporation and drift losses etc. However, the cooling efficiency is better. This efficiency of direct cooling plant is about 0.5% higher than that of the plant cool by cooling towers. This means a saving of about Rs.7.5 lacs per year in fuel cost of 2000MW station. Thus, the thermal power plant must be located near to a river, sea or lake.
Availability of Coal: Huge amount of coal is require for raising the steam 20K tons per day for a 2k MW station. The Steam power plant should be located near the coalmines to avoid the transport of coal and ash.
Land Requirements: The land is require not for the setting up the power plant but for the other purposes such as staff colony, coal storage, Ash disposal etc. for a 2000MW power plant the land require about 300acres. Land should also available for future extension.
Transport Facilities: The facilities must be available for the transportation of heavy equipment and fuels. Example Near railway station.
Ash Disposal: Ash is the main waste product of the steam power plant and with low-grade coal; it may be 3.5 tons per day. so that it can be used for brick making near the plant site. It the site is near the coalmine, it can be dump into the dis used mines.